Harnessing the Immune System to Treat Cancer: The Promise and Challenges Ahead*
Ronald Herbst, PhD, VP Oncology, MedImmune
Immune-evasion is a hallmarks of cancer and enhancement of the anti-cancer immune response by targeting checkpoint pathways, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, are showing significant promise. However, a subset of patients fails to benefit from immune therapy. Going forward it will be key to better understand the immunologic diversity within and...
Immunoscore and Immune Contexture in Cancer
Jérôme Galon, PhD, Research Director, INSERM
To date the anatomic extent of tumor (TNM-classification) has been by far the most important factors to predict the prognosis of cancer patients. However, this classification provides limited prognostic information and does not predict response to therapy. We showed that tumors from human colorectal cancer with a high-density of infiltrating...
Guiding Combination Immunotherapies Through the Characterization of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment*
Carlo Bifulco, MD, Medical Director, Providence Health & Services, Inc.
Immunotherapies are rapidly becoming a new standard of care for several cancer types and their adoption is being paralleled by the development of novel biological agents for a plethora of immune modulating targets. Combinations of immunotherapeutic agents, such as the A1:O28 use of nivolumab and ipilimumab to treat advanced melanoma,...
Emerging Immunotargets and Primary Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Holger Moch, MD, Institute Director Surgical Pathology, University of Zurich
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most immuno-responsive human cancers. Initially, cytokine administration was designed to exploit this property. High-dose IL-2 and Interferon-α were once the principle therapies for metastatic RCC, but they have limited response rates. In the last decade, targeted therapies have supplanted cytokine therapy due...
How to Deliver the Promise of Combination Immunotherapy
James Gulley, MD, Director, Medical Oncology Service, National Cancer Institute
Immunotherapy has demonstrated rapid, deep, and durable responses across a wide array of different cancers. However these remarkable responses have only been seen in a small subset of patients. Combinations of agents that can initiate an immune response with agents that can render immune cells more functional within the tumor...